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The National Reading Panel Report (USA)

In 1997, Congress asked for a national panel to assess the effectiveness of different approaches used to teach children to read. For over two years, the NRP reviewed research-based knowledge on reading instruction. The panel determined that effective reading instruction includes teaching children to break apart and manipulate the sounds in words (phonemic awareness), teaching them that these sounds are represented by letters that can be blended together to form words (phonics), having them practice what they’ve learned by reading aloud with guidance and feedback (guided oral reading) and teaching them to apply strategies to guide and improve reading comprehension.

Reference:

National Reading Panel (U.S.) & National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.). (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read : an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.