Learning Difficulties Australia


Response to Intervention

Key Research Papers
Programs and Resources
Government Initiatives
Useful Links


Response to Intervention & RTI Resources
What Are the Essential Components of RTI?
Simply, “Response to Intervention” refers to a process that emphasizes how well students respond tochanges in instruction. The essential elements of an RTI approach are: the provision of scientific, research-based instruction and interventions in general education; monitoring and measurement of student progress in response to the instruction and interventions; and use of these measures of studentprogress to shape instruction and make educational decisions. A number of leading national organizations and coalition groups, including the National Research Center on Learning Disabilities and the 14 organizations forming the 2004 Learning Disabilities (LD) Roundtable coalition, have outlined the core features of an RTI process as follows:
•    High quality, research-based instruction and behavioral support in general education.
•    Universal (school-wide or district-wide) screening of academics and behavior in order to determine which students need closer monitoring or additional interventions.
•    Multiple tiers of increasingly intense scientific, research-based interventions that are matched to student need.
•    Use of a collaborative approach by school staff for development, implementation, and monitoring of the intervention process.
•    Continuous monitoring of student progress during the interventions, using objective information to determine if students are meeting goals.
•    Follow-up measures providing information that the intervention was implemented as intended and with appropriate consistency.
•    Documentation of parent involvement throughout the process.
Quote taken from:
Response to Intervention (RTI): A Primer for Parents
Author: Mary Beth Klotz, PhD, NCSP, and Andrea Canter, PhD, NCSP
National Association of School Psychologists

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Key Research Papers

RTI Action Network (USA)
The RTI Action Network is dedicated to the effective implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) in school districts nationwide. Our goal is to guide educators and families in the large-scale implementation of RtI so that each child has access to quality instruction and that struggling students – including those with learning disabilities – are identified early and receive the necessary supports to be successful. The RtI Action Network is a program of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, funded by the Cisco Foundation and in partnership with the nation’s leading education associations and top RtI experts.

MUSEC Briefing Issue 17: Response to Intervention
Response to Intervention (PDF)

Response to Intervention (RTI): A Primer for Parents
Authors: Mary Beth Klotz, PhD, NCSP, and Andrea Canter, PhD, NCSP
National Association of School Psychologists
A major concern for parents as well as teachers is how to help children who experience difficulty in school. All parents want to see their child excel, and it can be very frustrating when a child falls behind in either learning to read, achieving as expected in math and other subjects, or getting along socially with peers and teachers. Response to Intervention (RTI) is a multi-step approach to providing services and interventions to struggling learners at increasing levels of intensity. RTI allows for early intervention by providing academic and behavioral supports rather than waiting for a child to fail before offering help.

RTI and Reading: Response to Intervention in a Nutshell
Author: G. Emerson Dickman
RTI is not a particular method or instructional approach, rather it is a process that aims to shift educational resources toward the delivery and evaluation of instruction that works best for students. This article provides a quick overview of RTI as it relates to reading.

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Programs and Resources

The Quick Smart Program – Allowing Students to Undertake Higher-Order Mental Processing by Providing a Learning Environment to Improve Their Information Retrieval Times
Centre for Cognitive Research in Learning and Teaching 2004
Dr Lorraine Grahame, Professor John Peg, Anne Bellert, Jennifer Thomas
Students who have problems with learning face myriad difficulties in accessing the curriculum. These students often need intensive support to bring them up to speed in basic skills such as reading fluency and the recall of number facts. This University of New England's research program focused on students with learning difficulties in their middle years of schooling. The research described focuses on the role of automaticity in developing students' fluency and facility with basic academic facts, and is said to be a fourth-phase intervention. Following initial teaching of the content by classroom teachers, subsequent attempts to address students' difficulties, the third phase when the classroom teacher receives collaborative support within the classroom from a specialist teacher, and then the fourth phase with intensive focused student instruction.

AIMSweb is an assessment and web-based data management system that provides the framework for any RTI implementation.  AIMSweb provides multiple assessments designed to efficiently benchmark and progress monitor basic academic skills in reading, writing and math for students in grades K-8. Developmental Reading Assessment®, 2nd Edition (DRA2). With demonstrated reliability and validity, the DRA2 for grades K-8 measures accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. The KeyMATH-3 assessment and instruction system gives you tools to assess and improve math skills of students ages 4∏ - 21.

Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades
February 2009
U.S Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance
In the primary grades students with reading difficulties may need intervention to prevent future reading failure. This guide offers specific recommendations to help educators identify students in need of intervention and implement evidence-based interventions to promote their reading achievement. It also describes how to carry out each recommendation, including how to address potential roadblocks in implementing them.
The authors are a small group with expertise in various dimensions of this topic. Several of us are also experts in research methodology. The recommendations in this guide reflect not only our expertise and experience but the findings of rigorous studies of interventions to promote reading achievement.

Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools
April 2009
This guide provides eight specific recommendations intended to help teachers, principals, and school administrators use Response to Intervention (RtI) to identify students who need assistance in mathematics, and to address the needs of these students through focused interventions. The guide also describes how to carry out each recommendation, including how to address potential roadblocks in implementing them.

The National Centre on Response to Intervention (USA)
RtI integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and to reduce behavior problems. With RTI, schools identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provide evidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions depending on a student’s responsiveness, and identify students with learning disabilities.

Implementing Response-To-Intervention at the School, District, and State Levels: Functional Assessment, Data-based Problem Solving, and Evidence-based Academic and Behavioral Interventions
Howard M. Knoff, PhD
This groundbreaking new resource from national expert Howard M. Knoff, PhD, represents the most comprehensive, up-to-date single-authored volume on RtI and published as an e-book to minimize cost and improve access. This “how-to” resource provides step-by-step RtI implementation from a practitioner’s perspective. It addresses in practical terms topics such as: the data-based, functional assessment problem-solving approach missing in most RtI models, how to monitor progress, professional development and much more – although based on the American school structure.

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Government initiatives

RtI and multi-tiered instruction in primary schools is a review by the US Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences (IES). The IES is said to reflect the government’s intent to advance the field of education research, making it more rigorous in support of evidence-based education.

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Useful Links

Pearson - Response to Intervention
Identifying and responding to struggling students is an ongoing challenge. Pearson's Response to Intervention solution provides a continuum of accelerated intervention strategies that assess, instruct and monitor at every level for the best possible outcome. This Website integrates RTI informational resources, professional development opportunities, and Pearson's assessment and curriculum intervention solutions that effectively fit the multi-tiered RTI approach to promote high-quality, standards-based instruction and intervention.
Also on this site see RTI – A Primer for Parents, including a list of associated web links for parents.


Wrightslaw (USA) has a very good section on Response to intervention, reporting the reauthorization of  IDEA, identifying children with specific learning disabilities. Schools will “not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability ..." (Section 1414(b)) (Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition, page 97). Wrightslaw answers questions about Response to Intervention, presenting a large collection of articles, free publications and recommended websites from a variety of sources. We found that some experts endorse RtI, while others are less enthusiastic.

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